Thursday, May 15, 2008


Kandungan GiziKandungan gizi Jagung per 100 gram bahan adalah:
Kalori : 355 Kalori
Protein : 9,2 gr
Lemak : 3,9 gr
Karbohidrat : 73,7 gr
Kalsium : 10 mg
Fosfor : 256 mg
Ferrum : 2,4 mg
Vitamin A : 510 SI
Vitamin B1 : 0,38 mg
Air : 12 grDan bagian yang dapat dimakan 90 %(Sumber Direktorat Gizi, Departemen Kesehatan Republik Indonesia)

Syarat Tumbuh
Tanah gembur dan subur dengan pH 5,5 – 7,5. pH tanah < 5,5 perlu diadakan pengapuran untuk menaikkan pH tanah sampai mendekati persyaratan pertumbuhan jagung.
Intensitas matahari penuh, curah hujan merata (optimal 100 – 200 mm/bulan) dengan suhu optimal 24 – 30 0C.

Jagung yang tua dapat dijadikan makanan pokok tunggal atau dapat juga dicampur dengan beras sebagai nasi jagung. Dapat juga dibuat tepung yang dapat digunakan sebagai campuran membuat kue atau makanan bayi. Jagung muda dapat langsung direbus atau dibuat macam-macam masakan seperti puding jagung, bakwan jagung, saus jagung dan chips jagung (corn flake).

Tuesday, March 11, 2008

Malaysia Agriculture

Malaysia, federation of 13 states forming a constitutional monarchy in South East Asia, comprising two distinct regions separated by some 650 km (400 mi) of the South China Sea. Malaysia is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. The regions are Peninsular Malaysia, formerly known as West Malaysia; and Sarawak and Sabah, formerly known as East Malaysia. Peninsular Malaysia comprises 11 states occupying the southern half of the Malay Peninsula, bordered on the north by Thailand, on the south by Singapore, on the west by the Strait of Malacca, and on the east by the South China Sea. The states of Sabah and Sarawak occupy the northern third of the island of Borneo, and are bordered on the north and west by the South China Sea, on the east by the Sula and Celebes seas, and on the south by the Indonesian province of Kalimantan. The island of Labuan, formerly part of Sabah, was made a federal territory in 1984. The sultanate of Brunei forms a coastal enclave in northern Sarawak.

Malaysia was formed on September 16, 1963 by the federal union of the 11 states of Peninsular Malaysia—then forming the Federation of Malaya (an independent nation since 1957)—with the self-governing state of Singapore, and the former British colonies of Sabah (North Borneo) and Sarawak. Singapore left the new federation in 1965. Malaysia has a total land area of 329,758 sq km (127,320 sq mi). The federal territory of Kuala Lumpur is Malaysia’s capital and largest city.

Environmental Concerns

Malaysia is home to some of the world’s richest rainforests and many other rich habitats, including at least ten distinct types of wetlands. Endemism is high, with 2,199 species found nowhere else on Earth. But an alarming 18 per cent of species are threatened and 3.2 per cent are endangered, including at least 78 endemic plant species. Endangered animal species include the Indian tapir and the orang-utan, of which only a few small populations survive. As in most other tropical countries, the main threats to Malaysia’s land come from logging, slash-and-burn agriculture, and conversion into temporary paddies.

The country is the largest exporter of tropical hardwoods but the unsustainable rates of deforestation are among the highest in the world. The careless logging of upland forests, particularly vulnerable to disturbance, has resulted in erosion, siltation, soil degradation, wildlife loss, and flooding. On the mainland peninsula only 43 per cent of the land remained forested by 1990, and it is estimated that only about 10 per cent of this is undisturbed forest. Many wetlands have also been disturbed or destroyed. Malaysia has not ratified the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands.

A large proportion of the protected land on peninsular Malaysia is found in Kinabalu National Park, one of the largest parks in South East Asia. Protected areas cover 2 per cent of Sarawak and 7 per cent of Sabah, but planned additions would bring the totals to 8 and 9 per cent. Illegal logging and wildlife poaching are still problematic in Malaysia’s protected areas. Urbanization and industrialization have also caused problems with solid-waste management and water pollution, affecting many of the country’s coastal waters and rivers. Inshore and offshore fisheries resources are rapidly being exhausted. The government of Malaysia is seeking to mitigate these problems through various means, including the Environmental Quality Act (1974) and the Fisheries Act (1985), but implementation and enforcement are frequently bogged down by politics and lack of resources. Malaysia is party to international environmental agreements concerning biodiversity, endangered species, high seas, law of the sea, tropical timber, and wetlands. The country has also signed the World Heritage Convention and the Agreement on Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).

Plants and Animals

Malaysia’s tropical climate supports abundant and diverse plant and animal life. More than half the land area is covered in forest—mainly tropical rainforest, but also deciduous woodland in the mountains. Much is virgin forest, particularly in Sabah and Sarawak, which contain Malaysia’s largest, and some of the world’s oldest, tracts of virgin rainforest. However, in many areas the forest is threatened by clearance for agriculture and commercial logging. The problem is most severe in Sarawak, which has almost doubled unprocessed log exports since 1980 and now accounts for almost 30 per cent of world raw timber exports. Despite national reforestation programmes, the designation of 3 million hectares (7.4 million acres) of national protected virgin forest, and attempts to diversify Sarawak’s economy, the World Bank estimates that trees are still being felled at unsustainable rates.

Malaysia’s fauna includes elephant, sun bear, rhinoceros, wild pig and ox, orang-utan, gibbon, and numerous members of the cat family—including tiger, leopard, Bornean clouded leopard, mainland clouded leopard, golden cat, and bay cat. Many of these species, including orang-utan, rhinoceros, and the cats, are endangered and are now protected. Sabah and Sarawak have one of the world’s largest and most varied bird populations, including numerous kinds of hornbill, parrot, pheasant, swift, and woodpecker. The small islands opposite the port of Kora Kinabalu, on Sabah’s western coast, have some of the world’s most diverse coral reefs and marine life.

Population Characteristics

Malaysia has a population of 24,821,286 (2007 estimate), giving an average population density of about 76 people per sq km (196 per sq mi). Peninsular Malaysia is about seven times more densely populated than Sarawak and Sabah. About 35 per cent of the population is rural, 65 per cent urban (2005). The population growth rate, once among the highest in Asia, has declined steadily since 1960, and was 1.76 per cent in 2007.

Land and Resources

Peninsular Malaysia has an area of 131,598 sq km (50,810 sq mi). Its topography is dominated by a series of mountain ranges, running from the north down half the length of the peninsula; the most important is the Main Range, or Barisan Titiwangsa, which rises to over 2,134 m (7,000 ft). Heavily populated coastal lowlands border the ranges on the west; on the east the coastal lowlands are narrower and forested. In the south, the peninsula is relatively level.